1) Augustus (q.v.) of the West (286-305) and member of the tetrarchy (q.v.), governing from Milan (qq.v.). A fellow soldier and friend of Diocletian (q.v.), who chose him to be augustus, his victories along the Rhine (q.v.) were overshadowed by the loss of Britain (q.v.) to Carausius (286-293). His caesar Constantius Chlorus (qq.v.), father of Constantine I the Great, recovered the province. Forced into retirement in 305 by Diocletian, he was succeeded as augustus of the West by Constantius Chlorus. When Constantius died in 306 Constantine was recognized as augustus in Britain by his father's troops, while in Italy (q.v.) Maximian came out of retirement in 306 to promote his son Maxentius (q.v.) as a rival to Severus (q.v.). Maximian switched his support to Constantine, and he was forced into retirement again (308), only to revolt unsuccessfully against Constantine in 310. Constantine apparently put him to death in the same year.
   2) See Ravenna.

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